3-Dimensional modeling is a revolutionary concept which has changed our perception of the world. It’s a process of creating a 3-dimensional representation of a surface or an object using computer graphics.
3-dimensional modeling is widely used in fields like medicine, animation, gaming, interior designing, films, learning and education, structure planning, medicine, archaeology, and many others.The 3D models, which are designed using computer graphics, can be again used in applications such as virtual reality, augmented reality, 3D printing, 3D scanning, prototyping, and marketing.
There are three types of 3-dimensional modeling- solid, wireframe, and surface.
Let us look at each of these types in detail-
Solid modeling is a modeling type which is extremely easy to use and is an important part of Computer Aided Engineering.
It’s widely used in engineering and medical applications- Designing prosthetics, visualizing body tissues, simulation of medical devices, sheet metal manufacturing, welding, motion planning, injection molding, and many others.
In this modeling technique, the models describe the volume of the object that they represent.Basic 3D shapes such as cones, cylinders, boxes, cones, spheres, wedges, and tori (donuts) are used to create various three-dimensional shapes as per our requirements. Complex shapes are constructed by combining these basic shapes in many forms- by adding them or by subtracting them.
A 3-dimensional shape can also be generated by revolving a 2-dimensional object about its axis. Many computer graphic tools allow designers to define various kinds of volumes and set up an association between the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional view of the given volume.
Solid modeling can be further classified as-boundary based, object based, and evaluated or unevaluated.
Solid modeling uses geometrical and topological information to completely represent an object without any confusion. The design models obtained from this technique can be directly used in automating the manufacturing processes in industries as they are correct and neat.
The solid models obtained here have several properties such as-
- They have well-defined boundaries.
- The size of the solids is finite.
- Boolean operations hold well on these models.
- The shape of the solid remains the same irrespective of its orientation or location.
Parametric modeling is a modeling technique based on a set of mathematical equations and is used to design objects using a finite set of parameters and constraints imposed upon them.
Before the birth of parametric modeling, support for altering and editing the shape of the solid object was not present. This disadvantage was overcome using parametric modeling. Here, any changes which occur in the design are reflected immediately and the parts of the model get replaced. This added flexibility is a big advantage. Also designers can instantiate an entire set of shapes from the existing model.
It’s widely used in manufacturing, construction, and many other industries as it’s visually appealing. It also reduces the product development time and hence, increases the profit.
Wireframe modeling is an abstract skeletal representation of a real world 3D object. Points, lines and curves are used to describe the edges of the object. The model does not contain any surfaces or textures, unlike solid modeling. As this modeling technique provides a basic representation of a real life 3-dimensional object, they are widely used to create frames- the starting point of 3D modeling. This modeling technique is time-consuming as each edge of the object has to be drawn and positioned independently in the space.Even if one vertex is positioned incorrectly, then the entire model has to be redrawn.
Wireframe modeling is widely used in matching a real world 3D object with its 3D model. The designer matches each vertex of the model with the reference and makes any changes if desired.
Wireframe modeling can be broadly classified as Pro’s modeling and Con’s modeling. In Pro’s modeling, the user enters the basic information to create the 3D model whereas in Con’s modeling, no information about inside and outside boundary surfaces is included.
There are many computer graphic tools available online which help designers to create accurate designs seamlessly such as DesignSpark Mechanical, RPG Maker MV and, SuperPro Designer.Hope that this article helps you understand the various types of modeling easily.Thanks for reading!